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Return to 1616

Western barred bandicoot
The western barred bandicoot is one of the animals that will be returned to Dirk Har tog Island

‘Return to 1616’ is a project that aims to restore the vegetation and habitats of Dirk Hartog Island National Park to how Dirk Hartog would have seen them in 1616.

The island has experienced significant changes since Dirk Hartog landed there on 25 October 1616. Sheep and goats changed the vegetation, their grazing habits and trampling reducing the food and shelter available for native species. Efficient new predators, feral cats, added to the pressures on native species, making it impossible for some to survive.

Ten species of small mammals and marsupials did not survive the changes to the island’s ecology - the western barred bandicoot, chuditch, mulgara, dibbler, greater stick-nest rat, desert mouse, Shark Bay mouse, heath mouse, woylie and boodie. Find out more about some of these animals here.

But ‘Return to 1616’ brings hope. With the sheep believed removed and most of the goats now gone, habitats are returning to how they would have appeared to Dirk Hartog in 1616. A cat eradication program is also underway to restore the natural balance of predators to how it was in 1616. When the cats are gone, ten animals that couldn’t survive the changes brought by introduced species since 1616 will be returned.

Two extra marsupials will join the reintroduced species. No evidence has yet been found of the rufous hare-wallaby and banded hare-wallaby previously occupying Dirk Hartog Island but, since they have become extinct on the mainland and now only occur on other nearby islands, Dirk Hartog Island will increase their chance of survival.

Collaring a goat
To help maintain successful shoots, Judas collars have been fitted to female goats

Restoring habitats

Plants and habitats must be restored before small mammals can be returned to Dirk Hartog Island National Park. To do this introduced herbivores, goats and sheep, must be removed.

Major destocking efforts began on the island in 2007 when the pastoral leaseholders removed about 4,000 sheep and 750 goats from the island by barge. This was in preparation for the change in tenure from pastoral lease to national park. Teams of DEC staff then culled the remaining sheep and most of the goats between 2008 and 2013.

To maintain successful shoots as numbers decrease, DEC staff have fitted Judas collars to over 20 goats. Goats wearing these radio collars can always be tracked during the collars’ four year battery life.

By collaring only females, the goat eradication team makes the most of the female goats’ social nature. Female goats spend time with other females and attract males. The males are more solitary. The Judas collars are used to find the goats during culling operations. Goats with Judas collars are not shot during these operations as they must live to gather and betray another mob.

Although it was estimated that less than 100 goats remain on the island after the February 2013 shoot, the goat eradication team cannot afford to become complacent. Goats have two breeding seasons each year. In each season a goat can produce two or three young so the population will quickly explode if there is a lessening of effort before all goats are eradicated.

While over 10,000 goats and 5,000 sheep have been removed from Dirk Hartog Island since 2007, the last of the goats will be the most challenging to remove. In 2013 the eradication team will incorporate new methods into their operations. These include luring goats to water points in summer and using aerial infrared cameras to locate goats in winter.

When this project is complete, Dirk Hartog Island will be the largest island in the world from which goats have been eradicated.

Collared cat

Cats have a deva stating impact on native animals.

Removing feral cats

Cats are efficient predators that have devastating impacts on native animal populations. The ten species of small mammals planned for reintroduction cannot be brought onto Dirk Hartog Island National Park while cats remain.

The cat eradication team has already started work radio collaring cats, tracking their movements and researching the effectiveness of baiting, the main control technique.

In 2013 the team is setting up temporary camps and a network of sand pads and camera traps for monitoring cats before and after baiting. This will be important for making sure all cats have been eliminated. They will also construct a fence to divide the island into two sections to make monitoring more efficient and effective.

Located at the northern end of Herald Bay and extending nearly 13 km to the west coast, the 1.8 metre high fence will be made of rabbit netting with an overhang at the top and three electric wires. A gate will allow vehicles to continue travelling north-south along the existing track. 

The first baiting operation will be south of the cat-proof fence in autumn 2014. It will be followed by monitoring in the southern section to find and remove any surviving cats. The next baiting and monitoring operations will be done north of the fence in 2015. Once each section is deemed cat-free, success will be verified by an independent team with detector dogs. The dogs will be trained to react only to cats. They will be muzzled and will follow scents to cats, stopping and pointing if they find one. This will be followed by two years of surveill ance in both sections of the island for any sign of cat presence. If there is no evidence of cats following the checks with dogs, and after two years of surveillance, the island will be declared free of cats and safe for the return of native mammals.
Cat fence and pads
This map shows the location of the cat-proof fence dividing the island and the network of monitoring sites and tracks.



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